early pregnancy symptoms

Early diagnosis of pregnancy and determination of its term is important not only from the point of view of obstetrics, but also due to the fact that anatomical, physiological and hormonal changes [1] that occur after conception can have a significant effect on the course of extragenital diseases that are present in anamnesis of the future woman in labor. Establishing the exact duration of pregnancy is extremely important for a full examination and adequate management of pregnancy and childbirth.... Diagnosing early pregnancy can be challenging because stress, medication, and some of the endocrine disorders can mimic pregnancy in symptoms. Currently, due to the widespread introduction of ultrasound  diagnostics into obstetric practice , the signs of pregnancy described in classical textbooks on gynecology and obstetrics are no longer so significant. All signs that make it possible to diagnose pregnancy are divided into presumptive (doubtful), probable and reliable. They can be based on subjective or objective data [2] .

 

An increase in abdominal volume is one of the signs

Presumptive signs of pregnancy https://www.pregnancyinside.info/

Presumptive signs of pregnancy include those based on subjective data:

  • Vomiting or nausea (especially in the morning), changes in appetite and eating habits, taste perversion (desire to eat clay, chalk, lime, etc.) [2]
  • Functional changes in the nervous system: frequent mood swings , tearfulness , dizziness , withdrawal, irritability, increased hearing, smell [2]
  • Frequent urination
  • Engorgement of the mammary glands, their hypersensitivity
  • Changes in skin pigmentation on the face, in the area of ​​the nipples and areola, along the white line of the abdomen [2]
  • The appearance of scars (stripes) of pregnancy on the mammary glands, hips, abdominal skin
  • Metabolic changes: an increase in the volume of the abdomen (due to the deposition of fat in the subcutaneous layer) [2]
  • Dyspepsia , a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric (epigastric) region [2]

Probable signs (objective signs determined by examination) edit edit code ]

 

Rapid pregnancy test

 
  • Amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation );
  • Enlargement of the mammary glands , the appearance of colostrum ;
  • Cyanosis of the vaginal mucosa and cervix ;
  • Changes in the shape, volume, consistency of the uterus ;
  • Enlargement of the uterus from 5-6 weeks, first in the anteroposterior size, then in the transverse;
  • Symptom Horvitsa Gegara: softening of the uterus, especially in the isthmus. In a two-handed examination, the fingers touch in the isthmus without resistance. Typical for 6-8 weeks from the last menstruation;
  • Snegirev's sign : variability of the consistency of the uterus: with mechanical irritation or two-handed examination, the uterus thickens and contracts, then becomes soft again;
  • Sign of Piskachek English ) : in the early stages, there is an asymmetry of the uterus, protrusion of one of the corners where the implantation took place . With an increase in the term disappears;
  • Sign of Gubarev and Gauss: in the early stages, there is a slight mobility of the neck, which is associated with a significant softening of the isthmus;
  • Genter's sign: in the early stages, due to softening of the isthmus, there is an inflection of the uterus in front and a ridge-like thickening on the anterior surface of the uterus along the midline. It is not always determined;
  • Chadwick's sign English ) : in the first 6-8 weeks of pregnancy, cyanoticity of the cervix.

Undoubted (reliable) signs - in the second half of pregnancy edit edit code ]

  • the fetal heartbeat is determined (with the help of an obstetric stethoscope, you can listen to the fetal heartbeat );
  • sensation of fetal movement (primiparous - at 18-20 weeks, multiparous - at 16-18 weeks);
  • palpation of large and small parts of the fetus or its movements (starting from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy). When palpating the abdomen with Leopold's techniques (external obstetric examination techniques), the position, position, appearance, presentation of the fetus and the relation of the presenting part to the small pelvis are determined ;
  • on the roentgenogram and echogram , the skeleton of the fetus is determined.

A positive pregnancy immunoassay is a likely sign of pregnancy. Determination of the level of the β-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin in the blood serum makes it possible to diagnose pregnancy a few days after the embryo implantation .

Reliable or unmistakable signs of pregnancy indicate the presence of the fetus in the uterine cavity. The most reliable information for diagnosing pregnancy is obtained based on the results of an ultrasound scan (ultrasound). With transabdominal scanning, pregnancy can be diagnosed at 4-5 weeks, and with transvaginal ultrasound at 3.5-4 weeks.

Early pregnancy is diagnosed based on the determination of the ovum, yolk sac, embryo and its heartbeats in the uterine cavity. At a later date, when imaging the fetus (s). Cardiac activity of the fetus is determined at 5-6 weeks of gestation, and physical activity at 7-8 weeks.

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